Torrentz will always love you. Please forward this error screen to sharedip-1666228125. 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses. Some neodymium compounds have florida drivers handbook 2016 pdf that vary based upon the type of lighting.
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Double nitrate crystallization was the means of commercial neodymium purification until the 1950s. Lindsay Chemical Division was the first to commercialize large-scale ion-exchange purification of neodymium. F, and purified by solvent extraction. The evolving technology, and improved purity of commercially available neodymium oxide, was reflected in the appearance of neodymium glass that resides in collections today.
Early neodymium glasses made in the 1930s have a more reddish or orange tinge than modern versions which are more cleanly purple, due to the difficulties in removing the last traces of praseodymium in the era when manufacturing relied upon fractional crystallization technology. The reserves of neodymium are estimated at about eight million tonnes. The world’s production of neodymium was about 7,000 tonnes in 2004. The bulk of current production is from China, whose government has recently imposed strategic materials controls on the element, raising some concerns in consuming countries and causing skyrocketing prices of neodymium and other rare-earth metals.
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40 in 2015, largely due to illegal production in China which circumvented government restrictions. The uncertainty of pricing and availability have caused particularly Japanese companies to develop permanent magnets and associated electric motors with fewer or no rare-earth elements. With neodymium compounds being the most strongly colored for the trivalent lanthanides, that percentage of neodymium can occasionally dominate the coloration of rare-earth minerals, when competing chromophores are absent. It usually gives a pink coloration. As with neodymium glasses, such minerals change their colors under the differing lighting conditions.
UV light causing neodymium-containing minerals to reflect a distinctive green color. This can be observed with monazite-containing sands or bastnäsite-containing ore. A neodymium magnet of a few grams can lift a thousand times its own weight. 351 nm in laser fusion devices. The first commercial use of purified neodymium was in glass coloration, starting with experiments by Leo Moser in November 1927. The resulting “Alexandrite” glass remains a signature color of the Moser glassworks to this day. Tiffin’s “twilight” remained in production from about 1950 to 1980.
Current sources include glassmakers in the Czech Republic, the United States, and China. This color-change phenomenon is highly prized by collectors. Moser referred to these as being “rare-earth doped” glasses. Another application is the creation of selective astronomical filters to reduce the effect of light pollution from sodium and fluorescent lighting while passing other colours, especially dark red hydrogen-alpha emission from nebulae. The similar absorption of the yellow mercury emission line at 578 nm is the principal cause of the blue color observed for neodymium glass under traditional white-fluorescent lighting. Neodymium and didymium glass are used in color-enhancing filters in indoor photography, particularly in filtering out the yellow hues from incandescent lighting.
These lamps contain neodymium in the glass to filter out yellow light, resulting in a whiter light which is more like sunlight. The use of neodymium in automobile rear-view mirrors, to reduce the glare at night, has been patented. Neodymium metal dust is combustible and therefore an explosion hazard. Commercially available magnets made from neodymium are exceptionally strong, and can attract each other from large distances. If not handled carefully, they come together very quickly and forcefully, causing injuries. For example, there is at least one documented case of a person losing a fingertip when two magnets he was using snapped together from 50 cm away. Another risk of these powerful magnets is that if more than one magnet is ingested, they can pinch soft tissues in the gastrointestinal tract.