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It can be a continuous process, unlike batch-wise dead-end filtration. This means that a crossflow filter can operate continuously at relatively high solids loads without blinding. Cross flow membrane filtration technology has been used widely in industry around the globe. Filtration membranes can be polymeric or ceramic, depending upon the application. When purifying water, it can be very cost effective in comparison to the traditional evaporation methods. The process can be used at different stages during purification, depending on the type of membrane selected.
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These pipe sizes are directly related to the proportion of liquid flows through the unit. A dedicated pump is used to recycle the feed several times around the unit before the solids-rich retentate is transferred to the next part of the process. In backwashing, the transmembrane pressure is periodically inverted by the use of a secondary pump, so that permeate flows back into the feed, lifting the fouling layer from the surface of the membrane. Backwashing is not applicable to spirally wound membranes and is not a general practice in most applications. Oxidation will degrade the membranes to a point where they will no longer perform at rated rejection levels and have to be replaced. CIP during an initial system start-up before spirally-wound membranes are loaded into the plant to help disinfect the system. Caustics and acids are most often used as primary CIP chemicals.
Caustic removes organic fouling and acid removes minerals. Enzyme solutions are also used in some systems for helping remove organic fouling material from the membrane plant. The pH and temperature are important to a CIP program. If pH and temperature are too high the membrane will degrade and flux performance will suffer. If pH and temperature are too low, the system simply will not be cleaned properly. Every application has different CIP requirements.
CIP program than a water purification RO plant. Each membrane manufacturer has their own guidelines for CIP procedures for their product. The volume of the fluid is reduced by allowing permeate flow to occur. Solvent, solutes, and particles smaller than the membrane pore size pass through the membrane, while particles larger than the pore size are retained, and thereby concentrated. In bioprocessing applications, concentration may be followed by diafiltration.