Child development an illustrated guide pdf

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This article discusses the most widely accepted developmental stages in children. There exists a wide variation in terms of what is considered “normal,” caused by variation in genetic, cognitive, physical, family, cultural, nutritional, educational, and environmental factors. Many children reach some or most of these milestones at different times from the norm. Holistic development sees the child in the round, as a whole person – physically, emotionally, intellectually, socially, morally, culturally and spiritually. Learning about child development involves studying patterns of growth and development, from which guidelines for ‘normal’ development are drawn up.

Developmental norms are sometimes called milestones – they define the recognised pattern of development that children are expected to follow. This page talks mostly about the linguistic development of a child. When held upright, holds head erect and steady. Serves to practice emerging visual skills. Also observed in blind children. Turns head around to sound.

Sensitivity to binocular cues emerges. Begins to jump with both feet. Supinate grasping position usually seen as first grasping position utilized. Be able to recognise their favourite songs, and will try to join in. Between 4 and 6 years, the classic tripod grip develops and is made more efficient.

Skips on both feet and hops. At this age onto age 7, adult muscle activation pattern in walking is complete. Leads to head control and trunk coordination while walking, by at least age 8. Head and chest circumference are nearly equal to the part of the abdomen.

Head circumference increases approximately 2 cm per month until two months, then increases 1. 5 cm per month until four months. Increases are an important indication of continued brain growth. Continues to breathe using abdominal muscles. Skin remains sensitive and easily irritated. Legs may appear slightly bowed.

Responds to and thrives on warm, sensitive physical contact and care. Expresses discomfort, hunger or thirst. The infant has trouble focusing on objects and could barely make out images with its eyes. Holds hands in an open or semi-open position.

Movements are large and jerky. Raises head and upper body on arms when in a prone position. Females have more arm synchronous coupling. Males have more leg synchronous coupling. Upper body parts are more active: clasps hands above face, waves arms about, reaches for objects. The oral fixation stage is when the infant begins to root and suck.

Head and chest circumferences are basically equal. Head circumference increases approximately 1 cm per month until six to seven months, then 0. Posterior fontanelle closing or fully closed. Gums may become red and swollen, accompanied by increased drooling, chewing, biting, and mouthing of objects. When lowered suddenly, infant throws out arms as a protective measure.

Swallowing reflex appears and allows infant to move solid foods from front of mouth to the back for swallowing. Lifts head when placed on back. Can roll over from back or stomach position. Environmental conditions, weather, activity, and clothing still affect variations in body temperature. Head and chest circumference remain equal. Anterior fontanelle begins to close.

Continues to use abdominal muscles for breathing. Legs may continue to appear bowed. Baby Fat” continues to appear on thighs, upper arms and neck. Feet appear flat as arch has not yet fully developed.

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